By Hildegard Westphal, Bernhard Riegl, Gregor P. Eberli
Carbonate sediments are of accelerating relevance for data of previous environmental stipulations and for least expensive purposes in components of geothermal strength and hydrocarbon reservoirs. complicated interplay of actual and chemical parameters with organic parameters determines the structure and composition of carbonate sedimentary our bodies. This publication closes a number of the nonetheless present gaps in our realizing of the impression and interaction of actual, chemical, and organic parameters with carbonate sedimentation. An figuring out of this interplay is not just required for trustworthy prediction of reservoir caliber but in addition for a strong interpretation of environmental stipulations some time past and the current. it really is written by way of geologists for geologists for you to offer an simply obtainable evaluation of the big quantity of correct details supplied through the neighbouring sciences. The process of the ebook is to record the fashionable depositional environments of 3 classical components of carbonate deposition, each one attribute for a particular sedimentological environment (isolated platform, connected shelf, ramp) in an effort to examine either the variety of actual, organic and chemical parameters and their sedimentary reaction. This booklet offers a complete compilation in accordance with information from released paintings and unpublished theses, and the mixing of those info as a way to extract formerly undiscovered relationships among the mentioned parameters and carbonate deposition.
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Extra info for Carbonate Depositional Systems: Assessing Dimensions and Controlling Parameters: The Bahamas, Belize and the Persian/Arabian Gulf
Corals are warm-water oligotrophic organisms adapted to normal marine salinities. 12). Due to the stable surfacecurrent regime, water temperatures in the Bahamas rarely exceed the upper temperature limit of coral growth (between 30°C and 34°C). 12; Wood 1999). 7). Reasons why the platform areas of the Bahamas are relatively poorly settled by corals, are recurrent cold and warm anomalies. In winter, due to their position close to the North American continent, the Bahamas are under the influence of northerly cold-fronts.
Echinoid distribution is partly dependent on substrate. For example, in the high-energy lagoon of Fernandez Bay, San Salvador Island, regular echinoid species (sea urchins) prefer hard rubbly substrates, whereas irregular species (sand dollars) prefer soft sand in which they burrow (Greenstein 1993). 14). 7 Microbial Mats Microbial mats containing cyanobacteria are found on sediment surfaces throughout the Bahamas. e. ooids, grapestones; Fabricius 1977). g. Monty 1976; Hardie 1977; Shinn et al.
High water energy equates better oxygen availabiliy to the corals and removes sediment and waste products that can damage the corals and decrease light penetration. 2 g/cm2/day is lethal for certain coral species (Stafford-Smith 1992). 6 m/s. 46 m/year (Freile et al. 10 to 40 mm/ky rhodolith 1995) growth (Littler et al. 4 kg/m2/year (Halimeda) (Freile et al. 05% of light (Chalker et al. 1988) irradiance (Hillis 1997) Depth 0–75 m (Liddell et al. 1997) >290 m (Littler et al. 1991) At least 0–80 m, possibly 150 m (Freile et al.
Carbonate Depositional Systems: Assessing Dimensions and Controlling Parameters: The Bahamas, Belize and the Persian/Arabian Gulf by Hildegard Westphal, Bernhard Riegl, Gregor P. Eberli