By Clive Davies
Calculations in Furnace know-how provides the theoretical and useful facets of furnace know-how. This ebook presents details pertinent to the improvement, software, and potency of furnace expertise.
Organized into 8 chapters, this booklet starts with an summary of the exothermic reactions that happen whilst carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to liberate the power to be had within the gas. this article then evaluates the efficiencies to degree the amount of gasoline used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air coming into, and the warmth misplaced to the environment. different chapters examine that you will need to ensure the volume of carbon discharged with the ashes, the volume and composition of any tar produced, in order that a carbon stability could be utilized. the ultimate bankruptcy describes a few of the reactions in the furnace surroundings and among fees and surroundings.
This ebook is a precious source for gas technologists, heating and ventilating engineers, and plant operators.
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Extra resources for Calculations in Furnace Technology. Division of Materials Science and Technology
Insufficient air results in incomplete combustion and loss of heating value, whereas too m u c h air leads to excessive loss of sensible heat in the combustion products. In each combustion reaction appliance there is an o p t i m u m percentage of excess air where the combined losses due to insufficient combustion a n d sensible heat will be a m i n i m u m . 2 . 2 . CALCULATION OF MINIMUM (THEORETICAL) AIR FOR COMPLETE COMBUSTION Atmospheric air is a mechanical mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, a n d small a m o u n t s of carbon dioxide, water vapour, argon, a n d other noble gases.
The mean specific heats between 32°F a n d 560°F are obtained from tables (Spiers) a n d are : N2 3 = 0-02 B t u / f t °F at N T P . 3 C 0 2 = 0-0288 B t u / f t °F at N T P . 0 3 2 = 0-0104 B t u / f t °F at N T P . 3 H 2 0 = 0-0231 Btu/ft °F at N T P . Thus sensible heat loss - 144-27 X 0-02 X (560 - 32) + 6-4 X 0-104 X (560 - 32) + 26-97 X 0-028 X (560 - 32) + 20-58 X 0-0231 X (560-32) = 1524 + 68-93 + 398-7 + 250 Btu = 2243 Btu/lb tar burned. ) The calculation would be greatly simplified if the mean specific heat of the mixture was known from tables or by experiment.
I I I Δ * 6 I ? I I I I R 9 ΙΟ II I I 12 %02 F I G . 3. Graph of oxygen percentage versus carbon dioxide percentage 39 COMBUSTION CALCULATIONS lent to a b o u t two-thirds of that resulting from combustion t o carbon dioxide. The loss due t o smoke is almost impossible to determine directly. 3 can be used directly to determine if the combustion has been complete. If the oxygen in the gas is 5-4% then the carbon dioxide content should be 13-2%. If the actual carbon dioxide content is less than this then incomplete combustion is indicated.
Calculations in Furnace Technology. Division of Materials Science and Technology by Clive Davies