By Joel Aberbach, Visit Amazon's Robert D. Putnam Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Robert D. Putnam, , Bert Rockman
In uneasy partnership on the helm of the trendy kingdom stand elected get together politicians bureaucrats. This booklet is the 1st entire comparability of those robust elites. In seven countries--the usa, nice Britain, France, Germany, Sweden, Italy, and the Netherlands--researchers puzzled seven-hundred bureaucrats and 6OO politicians to be able to know how their goals, attitudes, and objectives range inside cultural settings.
One of the authors' most important findings is that the worlds of those elites overlap even more within the usa than in Europe. yet during the West bureaucrats and politicians each one put on detailed blinders and every have specific virtues. In a well-ordered polity, the authors finish, politicians articulate society's desires and bureaucrats deliver them gingerly to earth.
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Extra info for Bureaucrats and Politicians in Western Democracies (Peabody Museum)
Clear descriptions of conceptual criteria and unambiguous code categories are essential, as is rigorous training of the coders, but the judgmental element is so central to the enterprise that a rigorous technique for ensuring high-quality, reliable data is critical. Independent, double-coding procedures were employed to maximize the reliability and validity of the data. While proce- 36 Bureaucrats and Politicians in Western Democracies dures varied slightly from country to country, the basic technique was to have each interview coded twice separately and then to discuss and reconcile any coding discrepancies.
Despite regional variations in prosperity and rates of economic- transformation, greater in some countries than in others, the social structure of every nation had been transformed as a consequence of the vast economic changes of the postwar period. From the perspective of the early seventies, therefore, many of the issues affecting all these countries originated in abundance: the thrust for greater democratization and control over institutions of authority, the advancement and enlargement of benefits from the social welfare state, the emergence of new constituencies pushing for sociocultural reforms on issues such as women's rights, abortion, divorce laws, and, especially in the United States, environmentalism.
Evidence from our own survey in Sweden verifies that ministry officials are significantly more "political" in background and outlook than their counterparts on the administrative boards. 67 The line between political and administrative leadership has been traditionally more blurred in the United States than in Europe. Hugh Heel s study of executive politics in Washington makes it clear that this blurring has accelerated in recent years. "If anything, the position of higher civil servants and the lines between political and career appointments have become even more complex and uncertain.
Bureaucrats and Politicians in Western Democracies (Peabody Museum) by Joel Aberbach, Visit Amazon's Robert D. Putnam Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Robert D. Putnam, , Bert Rockman