By H Balner M.D. (auth.)
Acute radiation damage in guy has been amply reviewed long ago a long time (1-8). info for these experiences used to be more often than not derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki adventure (3), from radiation injuries as a con series of checking out nuclear guns and the applying of nuclear strength (9-13) and from the intentional irradiation of sufferers, generally for the therapy of malignancies and/or as conditioning for transplantation (14-20). additional, a wide physique of information derived from animal experimentation has ended in wary extrapolations to the human state of affairs (14). An intricate assessment facing early somatic results of radiation in a guy was once released through UNSCEAR ) in 1962 (2). It was once supplemented in 1969 with the same record dealing more often than not with radiation-induced chromosome aberra tions, the consequences of radiation at the apprehensive process and, radio-active infection of our environment by way of nuclear trying out (21). In a newer UNSCEAR file (1972) the most subject matters have been genetic results, carcinogenesis and results of radiation at the immune reaction (22). The early results of radiation in guy have been additionally expertly and comprehensively reviewed in a document via the U.S. nationwide learn Council in 1967 (23).
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Additional info for Bone Marrow Transplantation and Other Treatment after Radiation Injury: A review prepared for the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Research, Science and Education (Biology-Medical Research)
Germfree mice or mice completely "decontaminated" (made pathogen-free by antibiotic treatment) do not die from GvHD: Thus, ~e£o~t~mln~tlo~~n~ ls~l~tlo~ starting before irradiation and grafting seems a sensible preventive procedure. In this respect, results obtained with lethally irradiated monkeys given unmatched mar~ow are encouraging, though not yet conclusive (131). Isolation, bacteriological monitoring, and administration of irradiated, MHC-matched granulocyte suspensions may be beneficial for long-lived chimaeras since such animals remain extremely susceptible to pathogenic organisms (particularly viruses).
Primate bone marrow contains a high proportion of lymphoid cells. g. by stem cell separation; see later) the acute type of GvHD of primates is transformed into the chronic or delayed type (99). Other methods to mitigate GvHD (and thereby change its "type") will be discussed below. The type of GvHD observed in dogs is not easy to classify since data obtained in different laboratories are somewhat contradictory (100, 101, 102). Generally, the GvHD observed in unmatched host/donor combinations in dogs seems to be of the acute or primate type.
Thus, the fate of any graft (skin, organ, bone marrow) is primarily dependent on the degree of histocompatibility between donor and recipient. Table IV schematically depicts the degrees of histoincompatibility to be encountered in experimental transplantation and its consequences for skin~ organ, and bone marrow grafts. Only the marrow grafts will be con- sidered in some detail. s~g~n~i£ will not be rejected. c situations, however, the host's immunological defences have to be significantly suppressed to permit a prolonged survival of skin and organ grafts or a take of hemopoietic cells.
Bone Marrow Transplantation and Other Treatment after Radiation Injury: A review prepared for the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Research, Science and Education (Biology-Medical Research) by H Balner M.D. (auth.)