By Garry T. Cole
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Extra info for Biology of Conidial Fungi. Volume 2
All isolates invariably cause rapid rot when inoculated into Golden Delicious apples. The mycotoxin most frequently associated with P. expansum is patulin. The metabolite has strong antibiotic properties and was actually used for therapeutic purposes during the 1940s. However, toxic side effects (dermal irritation, upset 44 Philip B. Mislivec stomach, vomiting) were found to be too severe to permit its continued use (Ciegler, 1977). Patulin has subsequently been shown to be toxic to mice, rats, poultry, and rabbits, the toxicoses involving the kidney, liver, lungs, brain, and spleen (Ciegler, 1977; Scott, 1977).
Halver (1965) presented a thorough review of the trout hepatoma outbreaks. III. MYCOTOXIN-PRODUCING CONIDIAL FUNGI A. Initial Considerations In the past 20 yr, numerous conidial fungi have been implicated in the production of mycotoxins and mycotoxicoses. Species of Aspergillus, Pénicillium, and Fusarium have been involved most frequently, but several other genera have also been identified as toxin producers. For instance, Christensen et al. (1968) screened 943 molds isolated from grains and peanuts for animal toxicity.
All the Indiana isolates produced a strong, musty odor. This point is made because a recent report on nine P. viridicatum isolates (Stack and Mislivec, 1978) showed that only three of the isolates had a musty odor, and that all three produced xanthomegnin and viomellein but no ochratoxin A or citrinin. The six odorless isolates produced ochratoxin A or citrinin, but no xanthomegnin or viomellein. Earlier, Ciegler et al. (1973) concluded that only odorless or slightly fragrant P. viridicatum isolates produced ochratoxin A or citrinin.
Biology of Conidial Fungi. Volume 2 by Garry T. Cole