By Professor Hans Zähner, Werner K. Maas (auth.)
This publication relies on Hans Zahner's Biologie der Antibiotica, released in 1965. there's a great literature on antibiotics, masking chemical, phar macological, and scientific features. now we have made no try and disguise this literature comprehensively. Our attempt is directed towards speak about ing antibiotics as organic brokers. they're elements produced through dwelling cells, but they can inhibit the expansion of residing cells - in lots of circumstances even the cells that produce them. we have now taken this obvious organic paradox as our aspect of departure and feature attempted to seem during this gentle on the creation of antibiotics and at their mode of motion. In a feeling antibiotics are resembling mutations. they're important as instruments within the examine of metabolism through blockading particular reactions. even as their mode of starting place and their results at the organisms that produce them are fascinating difficulties of their personal correct. we now have attempted to include either elements into our examine ations. This little publication, designed for biology scholars and clinical stu dents, presents them with a framework into which to slot extra really expert and particular info on antibiotics.
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Extra resources for Biology of Antibiotics
In cordycepin (produced by two fungi, Cordyceps militaris and Aspergillus nidulans) the conversion of ribose to 3-deoxyribose occurs at the level of "bound ribose" either in adenosine or AMP; that is, the antibiotic is a conversion product of AMP. In psicofuranine, synthesis involves the replacement of the ribose moiety of AMP by the 6-carbon sugar D-psicose (D-allulose), which is derived from glucose. Angustmycin A can be formed in vivo directly from psicofuranine by oxidation at carbon atom five of the sugar, and since both antibiotics are produced by the same organism (Streptomyces hygroscopicus) it seems likely that psicofuranine is formed first and that angustmycin A is derived from it.
Streptomyces purpurascens produces a large variety of rhodomycins, which differ from each other in the aglycone or in the sugar portion of the molecule. The same holds true for Streptomyces galileus, which produces pyrromycins. 3. Polymyxins. Bacillus polymyxa produces an almost unresolvable mixture of closely related peptide antibiotics. This list could be extended by citing the macrolide antibiotics, the streptothricins, the purine antibiotics, and others. The production of mixtures of related substances occurs also among higher plants, for example in many related alkaloids produced by a single species.
Further conversions along the antibiotic-specific pathways are then carried out, leading to the final product. The overall picture that emerges is of a series of side branches leading off at various points from the network of primary metabolism. The side branches may in themselves be quite complicated, involving the emergence of multiple branches from a given branch-point in primary metabolism or additional ramifications further down along the side branches. The reason for this complexity appears to be the tendency of an organism to form a whole series of secondary metabolites of a certain type once the capacity for carrying out the reactions leading into a particular secondary branch has been developed.
Biology of Antibiotics by Professor Hans Zähner, Werner K. Maas (auth.)