By Nils Ingri (auth.), Gerd Bendz, Ingvar Lindqvist, Vera Runnström-Reio (eds.)
Silicon chemistry used to be initiated in 1823 by means of Berzelius who ready elemental silicon. in lots of methods silicon was once thought of a standard contrary of carbon, even if the 2 parts are heavily similar as to their digital constitution, either having 4 valence electrons. The houses in their compounds are, even though, severe ly diversified. either shape prolonged buildings, yet in several methods - carbon by way of covalent carbon-carbon bonds; silicon by means of polar silicon- -oxygen-silicon bonds. The advanced carbon compounds are indispensable elements of all residing subject, vegetation and animals. The corresponding silicon compounds building up a huge a part of useless subject, soils and minerals. As lately as 20 years in the past the identify of this Symposium, "BiOChemistry of Silicon", may were regarded as contradictio in adjecto. although, the advance within the box has, up to now fifteen years, been overwhelming and has confident us that silicon is an important point within the lifestyles approaches, for animals in addition to for vegetation. fascinating therapeutical makes use of were prompt, yet we now have additionally develop into more and more conscious of severe occupational ailments - asbestosis and silicosis - and of attainable cancerogenic results. it's our desire that this quantity will supply a few concept approximately a variety of features of silicon compounds which have been mentioned through the Symposium.
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Extra resources for Biochemistry of Silicon and Related Problems
I do not know if thermodynamic data are available or not. If so it is of course possible to calculate and make a comparison. Selikoff: A problem of continuing environmental concern is whether there is weathering of asbestos in asbestos cement material& Measurements of particles in ambient air from such surfaces is extraordinarily difficult and currently insecure. Can predictive data be achieved by modeling techniques? Ingri: Modeling of a weathering process can always be performed, if one has (1) a total chemical analysis for the material; (2) an idea about which solid phases that can be formed; and (3) thermodynamic data for these phases.
14. The polyanion is built up of four tetrahedra arranged in a ring. The hydrogen ions have not been localized in the structure and their positions cannot be deduced from the Si-O bond distances. One may suggest, however, that every tetrahedron contains one terminal OH- and one terminal 0. The terminal oxygens are surely the atoms bearing the negative charge of the ion. The ~ ions are principally arranged around these oxygen atoms. 59 A). The crystal (KHSi0 3 )4, which more correctly ought to be written K4(Si408(OH)4) cannot be obtained directly by crystallizat~on from ordinary aqueous solutions since concentrated silicate solutions with compositions corresponding to the tetramer are very viscous and the crystallization process is probably very slow.
26). The complex formation between silicate ions and the metal ions and the metal ions Ca2+ and Mg2+ has recently been carefully studied by Santschi & Schindler (40). They used potentiometric titration techniques, measured the H+ concentration with a hydrogen electrode, added OH- coulometrically and used a constant ionic medium of 1 M NaC104' The temperature was kept at 25 0 C. WO equilibria ~+ + 2SiO(OH)3~ M(SiO(OH)3)2 or M2+ + Si0 2 (OH)22 ~ M(Si0 2 (OH)2)' There were indications that the latter equilibria were more likely.
Biochemistry of Silicon and Related Problems by Nils Ingri (auth.), Gerd Bendz, Ingvar Lindqvist, Vera Runnström-Reio (eds.)