By Susan T. Fiske
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Extra info for Annual Review of Psychology, Vol 56 2005
A fully indeterminate process would produce points that fall along straight lines in this space. ) apparently random frequency distribution. In one important and well-controlled study, Page & Neuringer (1985) employed a strategy of this type to examine indeterminacy in behavior and to see whether the ability of pigeons to produce random sequences depended specifically upon whether or not they were reinforced for apparent randomness. In that experiment, pigeons produced long sets of left and right responses, but under two reinforcement contingencies.
An analysis of the human data revealed when the Nash solution in the game was for a player to shirk 50% of the time, not only did the players shirk about 50% of the time, but they also showed essentially no patterns in their behavior out to a third-order statistical analysis. As in the experiments of Neuringer (1986) and Rapoport & Budescu (1992), subjects appeared capable of producing largely random patterns of behavior when they were reinforced for doing so. When Dorris & Glimcher analyzed the behavior of their monkeys, they found that the behavior of the monkeys was surprisingly similar, even essentially identical, to the behavior of their human employees.
Under conditions in which game theory predicts that indeterminacy will be reinforced, apparently indeterminate behavior can be produced. Of course, these data do not demonstrate that humans can produce fully indeterminate behavior. sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18) P1: IKH GLIMCHER determinate at a lower level of reduction. To test that hypothesis, however, one would have to turn to a neurophysiological level of analysis. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 56:25-56. org by Ball State University on 01/05/09. For personal use only.
Annual Review of Psychology, Vol 56 2005 by Susan T. Fiske