By Paul A Collinvaux, Paulo E. De Oliveira, Enrique Moreno
Amazon will end up a robust device for ecologists and weather modelers. It additionally includes short experiences of pioneering pollen paintings within the Amazon to this point; sections on pollen equipment, pollen information, paleoecology, and lake coring equipment.
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Additional resources for Amazon: Pollen Manual and Atlas
9). Our shoes are essentially short (5 cm) tubes of mild steel, tapered at the leading edge for easy entry into the mud (not too sharp, as knife edges are not wanted in a rubber boat). The shoe slips over the end of the tube, which rests against a shoulder inside the shoe. 9). It is important to realize that the purpose of the steel shoe is NOT to cut into the sediment better than the bare tube does. The purpose is to reduce friction by punching out a hole of wider diameter than the core tube that will follow the shoe down the hole.
Ice-ages were the only geological happening that seemed both drastic and recent enough. None of the recent data for the ice-age Amazon were available in 1969, of course, but the hypothesis of tropical aridity was already in vogue. Haffer suggested that in ice-age time forest patches lingered on high ground, and he further suggested that the intervening low areas were dry savanna so that the forest patches were effectively isolated. 11 If we are correct in concluding that the Amazon lowlands were always forested, the Haffer hypothesis has now been tested and falsified: there was no geographical isolation by aridity to promote the necessary vicariance.
To sample the top few centimeters of unpacked sediment, it is necessary to use a special sampler (described in a later section). But the approximate sediment surface must be found to start the main core. This cannot be felt through the rods, but its approximate position can be found by lowering a 12-inch (25 Amazon Pollen manual and atlas 36 cm) plexiglas (or similar material) disk on a line. When we have had a recording sonar with us to make bathymetric maps, we have used this to watch the descent of the sample tube towards the mud, stopping when we see contact on the sonar (for this first meter drive the casing is kept deliberately short so that the sampler can be seen as it projects below the casing).
Amazon: Pollen Manual and Atlas by Paul A Collinvaux, Paulo E. De Oliveira, Enrique Moreno