By Osamu Hayaishi
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Extra resources for ADP-Ribosylation Reactions. Biology and Medicine
NAD may be metabolically 2. Pyridine Nucleotide Metabolism and ADP-Ribosylation 33 unstable for other reasons. , 1967). It has been suggested that NAD breakdown may be a device for the regulation of NAD levels in bacteria (Foster and Moat, 1980). Thus although one ADP-ribosylation event will cause one NAD molecule to break down, the converse is not neces sarily true; an NAD breakdown event cannot be interpreted as being necessarily due to ADP-ribosylation. B. Measurement of NAD Turnover Evidence for NAD turnover in many systems has been based either on a decrease in NAD levels under some physiological condition in vivo, or on a loss of radioactivity from the NAD pool after incorporation of label into the nicotina mide moiety of NAD.
26 Baldomero Μ. Olivera and Ari M. Ferro circulation. This mechanism could conceivably account for the conversion of both tryptophan and nicotinic acid to nicotinamide by the liver. However, if the liver controls serum levels of NAD precursors, there presumably would be feedback mechanisms for the regulation of serum vitamin levels. The mechanism of regulatory control is unknown. Although all the metabolic steps described above for the conversion of nicotinic acid to nicotinamide are plausible, more definitive work needs to be done to establish whether intracellular NAD is indeed an intermediate in the conversion of tryptophan and nicotinic acid to nicotina mide by the liver.
Other possible physiological roles for A^-methylnicotinamide have not been found. 4. Extracellular Glycohydrolases NAD nucleosidase is present in a wide variety of cell types (mammalian cells in culture, erythrocytes, bacteria). Some of these enzymes may be complexed to endogenous inhibitors (Kaplan, 1968). Much of this activity is associated with the plasma membrane (for example, see Muller and Schuber, 1980). The func*In the studies by Hillyard et al. (1973) what was identified as nicotinamide ribose is in fact N methylnicotinamide as pointed out by Jacobson et al.
ADP-Ribosylation Reactions. Biology and Medicine by Osamu Hayaishi